Western Front 1918

Battle of Britain 1940

Home Defence 1940 - 1942

Channel and North Sea 1941

Atlantic 1941

Biscay Ports 1941

Fortress Europe 1941

North Africa 1942 - 1943

Sicily 1943

Salerno 1943

Italy 1943

Arakan 1944

Manipur 1944

Burma 1944 - 1945

  Distinguished Flying Cross

The D.F.C was established on 3 June 1918 for officers and warrant officers of the Air Forces for "an act of valour, courage, or devotion to duty performed whilst flying in active operations against the enemy". The DFC was open to those pilots who had scored eight or more aerial victories. 4,018 were awarded during WW2, plus 214 first and 5 second bars

  The Distinguished Flying Medal (D.F.M.)

Established on 3 June 1918, the same day as the D.F.C., was awarded to non-commissioned officers and men of the RAF in exactly the same circumstances as the Distinguished Flying Cross (D.F.C.) was awarded to officers. A quite unneccessary piece of class diferentiation here. In a further piece of nonsense, the DFC for officers is worn before the Conspicuous Gallantry Medals, the George Medal, and the Military Medal, yet the absolutely equivalent D.F.M. comes after these. Common sense prevailed in 1993 when it was finally decided that the D.F.C. could be awarded to both officers and other ranks and the D.F.M. discontinued.

  Distinguished Service Order

Established in 1886 for rewarding individual instances of distinguished or meritorious service in war. Until September 1942, only commissioned officers of the fighting services were eligible for this award, it was then extended to include officers of the Merchant Navy "who perform gallant or meritorious acts before the enemy while serving in close contact with the Royal Navy." It is further laid down [prior to 1943] that "no person shall be eligible for the award whose services have not been marked by special mention of his name in despatches for distinguished services under fire, or under conditions equivalent to service in actual combat with the enemy".

   Battle of Britain Clasp (Silver-gilt Rosette on 1939-45 Star)

The 1939-1945 Star with the clasp of the Battle of Britain was awarded to all aircrews of the Royal Air Forces from throughout the Empire and her allies who flew operationally between the 10th of July and the 31st of October 1940. Just over 2,900 men of 'The Few', many postumously, qualified for the clasp. The minimum requirement was to have flown at least one operational sortie whilst serving with one of the 71 eligible squadrons.

  1939-45 Star

Granted for service in operations from 3 September 1939 to 15 August 1945, the date on which active operations against Japan ceased in the Pacific. For the Army the qualifying period was six months' in an operational command which did not include the United Kingdom. For the Royal Navy, six months service at sea in areas of active operations. For the R.A.F. it was awarded to all air crews who had taken part in active operations against the enemy subject to two months in an operational unit, while non-crew personnel had to have served six months in operational areas. For the Merchant Navy the same conditions applied as for the Royal Navy except that six months' service at sea qualified provided that at least one voyage had been made through an area of active operations. Lifeboatmen of the Royal National Lifeboat Institution qualified if they were out on service twenty-five times or more during the war. Women of the W.R.N.S, the A.T.S., and W.A.A.F. were awarded the star on exactly the same basis as male servicemen. Time spent as a prisoner of war counted, while those who had taken part in specified operations who had won an honour, decoration, or mention in despatches, or had died on service, or were evacuated as the result of wounds or sickness were eligible for this award irrespective of the six months qualifying period. The same applied to personnel evacuated from Norway, Dunkirk, Greece, Crete, etc. Others eligible for the star were those enrolled in maritime Royal Artillery, or serving with Anti-Aircraft defence of merchant shipping, provided that they had completed six months' sea-going duty in certain specified 'dangerous waters'. Special grants of the star were made to those responsible for operational decisions, such as chiefs of staff, commanders-in-chief, and commanders.

  Africa Star

Awarded to the Armed Forces and Merchant Navy and to women of the A.T.S and W.A.A.F. for entry into an operational area in North Africa, Abyssinia, Somaliland, Eritrea, and Malta, between 10 June 1940 and 12 may 1943. CLASPS - A silver numeral '8' or '1' worn centrally on the ribbon indicates service with the Eighth Army (between 23 October 1942 and 12 May 1943), or the First Army (between 8 November 1942 and 12 May 1943). Qualifying personnel are required to have been on the posted strength of, or attached for duty to, a formation or unit which appeared on the Order of Battle of the First or Eighth Army. The first image, above, indicates that the holder has the 8th Army clasp. A silver rose emblem is worn on the ribbon by personnel of the Royal Navy Inshore Squadron and Merchant Navy vessels which worked inshore between 23 October 1942 and 12 May 1943, and by personnel of the RAF serving between the same dates. The Eighteenth Army Group H.Q. also wear this emblem for service between 15 February 1943 and 12 May 1943.

  Italy Star

Awarded for operational service on land in Sicily, mainland Italy, Greece, Yugoslavia, the Aegean and the Dodecanese, Corsica, Sardinia, and Elba, at any time during the campaign from 11 June 1943 (capture of Pantelleria) to 8 May 1945. Service in Sicily after 17 August 1943; in Sardinia, after 19 September 1943; or in Corsica, after 4 October 1943, did not count. Service with the Royal Navy or Merchant Navy in active operations, and air crew service in operations against the enemy in the Mediterranean, including sorties, also qualified, as did Naval personnel ashore and RAF ground forces in the qualifying area.

  Burma Star

Awarded for active service in Burma from 11 December 1941; service in Bengal or Assam from 1 May 1942 to 31 December 1943; from the parts of Assam or Begal east of Brahmaputra, from 1 January 1944. CLASP - Personnel qualifying for both this star and the Pacific Star, only received the first star with a bar on the ribbon for the second. The possession of a bar is indicated by a silver rose emblem on the ribbon when it is worn alone.

  War Medal 1939-45

Awarded to personnel of the Armed Forces of the British Commonwealth and civilians such as war correspondents and civil air transport, but excluding the Home Guard. The qualification was 28 days service operational or non-operational between 3 September 1939 and 2 September 1945.

  Defence Medal

The ribbon has a broad central flame-coloured stripe with green edges each bearing a narrow black stripe. These colours symbolize the enemy air-attacks on 'our green and pleasant land', air attacks being the key to this award. Service to qualify counted from 3 September 1939 to 8 May 1945 in Great Britain; and to forces overseas to the end of hostilities in the Pacific, 15 August 1945. Civil Defence Services in military operational areas subject to air attack were included, as were Civil Defence Services in areas in the British Commonwealth or the Colonial Empire subjected to air attack or closely threatened. Service in the Civil Defence Services in West Africa or the West Indies did not qualify. In general terms, the Defence Medal was granted for three years' service in Great Britain, or six months' service overseas in territories subjected to air attacks or closely threatened. In the case of mine and bomb disposal units of the Forces the time qualification was three months. It could be awarded in addition to Campaign Stars.

  General Service Medal (Army and RAF)

This was awarded for those who took active part in minor campaigns which did not warrant the issue of separate campaign stars. It has various bars giving the name of the particular campaign from WW1 through WW2 and beyond, for example "BOMB & MINE CLEARANCE 1945-49"; PALESTINE 1945-48"; "YANGTSE 1949"

  Malta George Cross 50th Anniversary Medal

In 1992, to dignify the 50th. anniversary of the presentation of the George Cross to the Island, the Malta Government struck the "Malta George Cross Fiftieth Anniversary Commemmorative Medal." for service between the dates of the 10th. of June 1940 to the 8th. of September 1943, on the island or in ships supporting it.The ribbon, two narrow stripes of white and red on a blue background, are to represent the Malta Flag and the George Cross.

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